Another example of indigenous peoples’ practices is the use of beliefs in totems for managing the natural resources and conserving flora and fauna by the Ba’Aka pygmies of Central Africa.
Such spiritual beliefs in the Lower Songkhram River Basin supported the indigenous people to continue conserving the natural resources in their territory.
In addition, property rights granted to indigenous people also contribute to the conservation of natural resources.
Indigenous people in some parts of the globe are entitled to specific rights to collectively use and manage natural resources, predicated on their historical, social and cultural connection to a particular territory.
The United Nations (UN) defines indigenous people as people being inheritors and practitioners of unique cultures and ways of relating to people and the environment.
They believed that the “holy” areas were the place where their god resided.
Consequently, the villagers respected and maintained the forest resources.Indigenous people have retained social, cultural, economic and political characteristics that are distinct from those of the dominant societies in which they live .Following such traditional practices as beliefs, taboos, myths, and songs, the indigenous people of Ashanti communities in Ghana, for example, have been able to conserve their forests for generations .We conducted in-depth interviews with 5 key informants and quantitative surveys with 158 households in two phases over a period of 3 years.Ancestral spiritual beliefs that are still salient in the Lower Songkhram River Basin influence natural resources management because they traditionally link people and natural resources.This collaborative research involving anthropology and ecology was completed to help explain the relationship between indigenous beliefs and NRM in the study area and other parts of the LSRB with the questions as to the type of belief system, the relationships between indigenous people and spirits, how the indigenous people use and manage natural resources in the wetland, and the rules and regulations for using natural resources in the restricted lakes and protected species.This study attempts to provide valuable insights into the changing values of indigenous beliefs in the context of management of natural resources and the effect of indigenous spiritual beliefs on NRM and ecological conservation.Lua’s traditional beliefs associated with operations in the swidden agricultural system are guided by animistic beliefs in every farming process.Their practices based on the traditional beliefs have demonstrated the ability to sustain agro-diversity and inherent wild biodiversity, ensuring ecosystem functions and supporting livelihoods and food security .Little detailed scientific research on indigenous beliefs, taboos, and rituals associated with natural resource management (NRM) has been completed to establish their significance .Although management practices may be hidden in complex beliefs and may appear to have no scientific basis, many indigenous beliefs have been shown to be effective [7,8].