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Thomas Aquinas; (2) the argument from simple analogy; (3) Paley's watchmaker argument; and (4) the argument from guided evolution.The more contemporary versions include: (5) the argument from irreducible biochemical complexity; (6) the argument from biological information; and (7) the fine-tuning argument.Pursuing a strategy that has been adopted by the contemporary intelligent design movement, John Ray, Richard Bentley, and William Derham drew on scientific discoveries of the 16th and 17th Century to argue for the existence of an intelligent Deity.
David Hume is the most famous critic of these arguments.
In Part II of his famous Look round the world: contemplate the whole and every part of it: you will find it to be nothing but one great machine, subdivided into an infinite number of lesser machines, which again admit of subdivisions to a degree beyond what human senses and faculties can trace and explain.
According to this explanation, such operations evolve through a process by which random genetic mutations are naturally selected for their adaptive value; organisms that have evolved some system that performs a fitness-enhancing operation are more likely to survive and leave offspring, other things being equal, than organisms that have not evolved such systems.
If this explanation is possibly true, it shows that Aquinas is wrong in thinking that "whatever lacks knowledge move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence." The next important version of the design argument came in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
The scriptures of each of the major classically theistic religions contain language that suggests that there is evidence of divine design in the world.
Psalms 19:1 of the Old Testament, scripture to both Judaism and Christianity, states that "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork." Similarly, Romans -21 of the New Testament states: For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them.Since the concepts of design and purpose are closely related, design arguments are also known as is persuasive evidence of intelligent design or purpose; and (3) a premise (or sub-argument) that asserts (or concludes) that the best or most probable explanation for the fact that the material universe exhibits .There are a number of classic and contemporary versions of the argument from design. Among the classical versions are: (1) the "Fifth Way" of St.Now whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is directed by the archer.Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God (Aquinas, It is worth noting that Aquinas's version of the argument relies on a very strong claim about the explanation for ends and processes: the existence of any end-directed system or process can be explained, as a logical matter, only by the existence of an intelligent being who directs that system or process towards its end.Since the operations of all natural bodies, on Aquinas's view, are directed towards some specific end that conduces to, at the very least, the preservation of the object, these operations can be explained only by the existence of an intelligent being.Accordingly, the empirical fact that the operations of natural objects are directed towards ends shows that an intelligent Deity exists.This crucial claim, however, seems to be refuted by the of an evolutionary explanation.If a Darwinian explanation is even coherent (that is, non-contradictory, as opposed to true), then it provides a logically possible explanation for how the end-directedness of the operations of living beings in this world might have come about.Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. Further, Koran asks "Do you not see that Allah has made what is in the heavens and what is in the earth subservient to you, and made complete to you His favors outwardly and inwardly?" While these verses do not specifically indicate which properties or features of the world are evidence of God's intelligent nature, each presupposes that the world exhibits such features and that they are readily discernable to a reasonably conscientious agent.