Consequently, nobody knows that Hillary Clinton won the election. Sometimes when people are very confident of something that turns out to be wrong, we use the word “knows” to describe their situation. Speaking loosely, one might even say that many people “knew” that Clinton would win the election—until she lost.Hazlett (2010) argues on the basis of data like this that “knows” is not a factive verb.A proper analysis of knowledge should at least be a necessary truth.Tags: Www.Dissertation.ComTobacco EssayEssays On Color PsychologyEssay Title ItalicsGettysburg Address EssayEuropean Union Pros And Cons EssayPhysics AssignmentDescribe Your Mom Essay
Suppose Walter comes home after work to find out that his house has burned down. Critics of the belief condition might argue that Walter knows that his house has burned down (he sees that it has), but, as his words indicate, he does not believe it.
The standard response is that Walter’s avowal of disbelief is not literally true; what Walter wishes to convey by saying “I don’t believe it” is not that he really does not believe that his house has burned down, but rather that he finds it hard to come to terms with what he sees.
By “propositional knowledge”, we mean knowledge of a proposition—for example, if Susan knows that Alyssa is a musician, she has knowledge of the proposition that Alyssa is a musician.
Propositional knowledge should be distinguished from knowledge of “acquaintance”, as obtains when Susan knows Alyssa.
Most epistemologists have found it overwhelmingly plausible that what is false cannot be known.
For example, Hillary Clinton did not win the 2016 US Presidential election.
The analysis of knowledge concerns the attempt to articulate in what exactly this kind of “getting at the truth” consists.
More particularly, the project of analysing knowledge is to state conditions that are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for propositional knowledge, thoroughly answering the question, what does it take to know something?
Much of the twentieth-century literature on the analysis of knowledge took the JTB analysis as its starting-point.
It became something of a convenient fiction to suppose that this analysis was widely accepted throughout much of the history of philosophy.