The British occupied Bechuanaland, Rhodesia, Swaziland and Basutoland.
The main countries involved in the colonization of Africa included France, England, Portugal, Germany, Great Britain and Denmark.
The colonisation of Africa was part of a global European process reaching all the continents of the world.
European colonisation and domination changed the world dramatically.
Historians argue that the rushed imperial conquest of the African continent by the European powers started with King Leopold II of Belgium when he involved European powers to gain recognition in Belgium.
The continent consisted not of closed reproducing entities, equipped with unique unchanging cultures, but of more fluid units that would readily incorporate outsiders into the community with the condition that they accepted its customs, and where the sense of obligation and solidarity went beyond that of the nuclear family.
Pre- colonial societies were highly varied, where they were either stateless, run by the state or run by kingdoms.Economic, social, and political climates in Europe created a sense of urgency among competitive nations to stake claims in and division of the "Dark Continent".To try to create some organization during the scramble, the Berlin Congress was held and European countries "sliced" up the African countries like a cake, each country got a portion of land.The notion of communalism was accepted and practiced widely; land was held commonly and could not be bought or sold, although other things, such as cattle, were owned individually.In those societies that were not stateless, the chiefs ran the daily affairs of the tribe together with one or more councils.(Just like the ‘cutting’ of the Chinese watermelon).All of them played significant respective roles in the conquest of Africa.Scramble for Africa, a phrase used to describe the frenzied claiming of African territory by half a dozen European countries that resulted in nearly all of Africa becoming part of Europe's colonial empires.The Scramble began slowly in the 1870s, reached its peak in the late 1880s and 1890s, and tapered off over the first decade of the 20th century.The Scramble for Africa took place during the New Imperialism between 18.The focus of this lesson will be on the causes and results of European colonisation of the African continent, with special focus on the Ashanti kingdom (colonised by the British as the Gold Coast, and today the independent African country of Ghana).