Sadler, a professor in the psychology department at IUP, states that you can cite articles that will agree or disagree with your ideas.To let the reader know that a journal article is about to be cited in the body of your paper, you can use signal phrases that are appropriate for the ideas you want to express.
Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent.
If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor.
The American Psychological Association standard (APA-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific disciplines.
For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing.
For example, NHS, for the National Health Service, or WHO, for the World Health Organization.
The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography.is located on the "Ready Reference Shelves," behind the Reference Desk. Click on the tabs above for APA Format Examples (from Skyline Library), or click on the following links for more information.Most of your introduction, and much of your discussion, involve building upon the research of others, placing your research project in the context of previous findings in the field.If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system.For example, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors (BCE) use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography: It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism, but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing.Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution.If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.For example, This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves.There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure.