Research Paper About Breast Cancer

Research Paper About Breast Cancer-60
The committee met in person five times from April 2010 through February 2011 and conducted additional deliberations by conference call.

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Although such biological “background” mutagenesis is unavoidable, highly efficient protective pathways, such as DNA repair and immune surveillance, are effective at reducing the impacts of procarcinongenic events (Loeb and Nishimura, 2010; Bissell and Hines, 2011).

Although more needs to be learned about both the mechanisms by which breast cancers arise and the array of factors that influence risk for them, much has been established.

Another 450 breast cancer deaths are expected among men in 2011 (ACS, 2011).

Since the mid-1970s, when the National Cancer Institute (NCI) began compiling continuous cancer statistics, the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer rose from 105 cases per 100,000 women to 142 per 100,000 women in 1999 (NCI, 2011). In 2008, the incidence of breast cancer was 129 cases per 100,000 women.

that critical events in the origins of breast cancer can occur very early in life; the variety of pathways through which breast cancer risks may be shaped; and the potential significance of both the timing of exposures and the way combinations of factors determine the effect on risks for different types of breast cancer. (Based on November 2010 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website, 2011.) (accessed June 1, 2011).

This growing knowledge has stimulated a transition in breast cancer research. In contrast, knowledge of the complexity of breast cancer is growing, with the characterization of multiple tumor subtypes; the possibility _________________ Loeb and Nishimura (2010, p. 4270) note that each normal cell in a person’s body may be exposed to as many as 50,000 DNA-damaging events each day, and that oxygen free radicals are a major source of DNA damage. The early procarcinogenic events from endogenous and exogenous processes may be sustained and furthered by physiologic conditions such as obesity. It is likely that many such procarcinogenic events may never be entirely preventable because, although potentially modifiable, they are consequences of basic biologic processes, such as oxidative damage to DNA from endogenous metabolism, or stimulation of cell growth through normal hormonal processes. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. STUDY CHARGE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES This study resulted from a request to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) by Susan G. Komen for the Cure and its Scientific Advisory Board. At present, a large but incomplete body of evidence is available on the relationship between breast cancer and the wide variety of external factors that can be said to comprise the environment. Information on interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is particularly sparse. Komen for the Cure funds research on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, and also provides educational information and support services for the public and health care providers. The Statement of Task for the IOM study appears in Box 1-1.

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