However, it was settled that in practice the caliph would remain absolute in administrative and political matters but he would not interfere in the affairs of the shariat nor would make any effort to change it. It is how religion and politics separated with each other in the early stage of Islamic history.
As a result of this settlement, a system emerged in which the ruler had unlimited power.
He is not under the control of divinity to remain submissive and inactive.
On the contrary, he is supposed to initiate and plan to build a society according to his vision.
With the passage of time, a stage comes when a religion fails to respond challenges of its time and finds hardly any space to adjust according to new environments.
For example, in case of Islam, it took nearly two and a half centuries to complete its orthodoxy.However, with the change of time there are new challenges and a religion has to respond them for its survival.In this process, it has to adjust its teachings according to changes.Professional bureaucracy to administer the state and its affairs supported him.Ulema joined the state as qazi (judge), mufti (interpreter of law), muhtasib (ombudsman) and as imam (prayer leader).On the other hand, rulers also adopted a policy of conciliation toward then.They showed outward respect to them; invited them to their court to deliver sermons and ask for their advice on important issues.If religion holds political authority, its ambition is to exploit it to fulfill a divine mission.It claims that it derives authority from divinity and therefore its mission is holy, motivated to reform society under the spiritual guidance.Especially, with the extension of knowledge, politics, economics, sciences, technology and other branches of knowledge assume a separate entity that could be specialized and handled by professionals.Ulema or religious scholars are not in a position to understand intricacies of these professions and adjust them with religious teachings.