Poverty Literature Review

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Gibson, K., Abraham, Q., Asher, I., Black, R., Turner, N., Waitoki, W., & Mc Millan, N. Child poverty and mental health: A literature review.

Commissioned for New Zealand Psychological Society and Child Poverty Action Group.

Although the concept of AT was first coined by Schumacher, Mahatma Gandhi is considered as the founder of AT movement as he promoted the design of small and local technologies appropriate to satisfy needs of villages in India (Anthony ).

Failures in transferring technologies from Western countries to developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s motivated the AT movement.

As such, the paper will be useful to those who are new to this field as well as to those who are experts in this field.

The concept of using design to improve life circumstances of marginalised people in developing countries can be traced back at least to ‘Design for the Real World’ and ‘Appropriate Technology’ movements, initiated and popularised by Victor Papanek and E. Schumacher, respectively, in the 1970s (Papanek and Fuller ).

Design is essential to fulfil unmet or under-served needs of resource-poor societies, supporting their social and human development.

A great deal of design research has been undertaken in such low resource settings, and is discussed under different names, such as ‘community development engineering’, ‘humanitarian engineering’, ‘appropriate technology’, ‘design for development’, ‘design at the Base of the Pyramid’, etc.

This reveals a multifaceted picture, showing a great diversity in investigation and reporting of attributes of context (income, rural and urban, design sectors, countries, and gender), the roles of poor people (consumers, producers, and co-designers), characteristics of research methods employed (e.g.

descriptive and prescriptive, data collection methods, qualitative and quantitative aspects, and unit of analysis), and design topics.


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