It is a basic belief that perception is as a result of the input from senses being interpreted by cognitive action (Shiffman, 2001, Sternberg, 2006, Gordon, 2004).
Perception can be understood as a rational cognitive process (Richeimer, 2006).
This appears to be as a result of the registration of the stimuli and the final response to them.
(Gordon , 2004) It is important to set the scene surrounding visual perception theories as there are many different approaches to explaining visual perception and there are different levels of explanations (Shiffman, 2001, Sternberg, 2006) Not one theory can be considered accurate however there are some have stronger evidence and provide a rational explanation.
Constructivists argue that people make correct attribution regarding visual sensation and this is because we perform an unconscious inference.
This is the process that the brain unconsciously integrates information from any number of difference sources thus creating perception.
For successful perception it requires cognitive processes combing thought, intelligence and information from visual senses together with the knowledge gained from prior experience (Gordon, 2004).
Now that the main ideology surrounding this theory has been asserted it is important to consider the evidence proposed by the theorists.
The contrary theory constructivism which is otherwise known as empiricism (Gordon, 2004) or top down theory will be subsequently discussed.
Constructivists have largely influenced in directing theories and research of perception (Schiffman, 2001).