You just use minimum information that clearly indicates the text that you are referring. Use pp for the information you got from multiple pages e.g. When you use op.cit, you still provide information such as the name of the author to make your source clear. You should present your quotes in not more than 30 words in texts of related and fresh paragraphs.
A footnote should contain the following information, with the title of the book or work in italics and all other text in normal font: author initial and surname, title, publisher name, place of publication, date, page number. If you use further references to the same text later on you can abbreviate subsequent footnotes to simply: author, page number.
The Harvard referencing system includes the author, the date of the work and the page number in brackets in the body of the text, immediately following the quote or reference.
There are many complex details involved in using these styles of referencing, which would be too numerous to list here, so it is highly advisable to consult an in-depth guide to how to reference correctly.
The information below is intended to give an overview of the main points and some helpful advice to bear in mind when using them.
Remember, the most important thing is to make sure that whatever stylistic decisions you make about your footnotes and references, they remain completely uniform and consistent throughout your essay or dissertation writing.
Oxford referencing is a style that uses a bibliography (a list of references) and footnotes.This often causes a great deal of confusion, but the most important thing is to be consistent.You may well find that a specific referencing system is prescribed for a piece of work, but if not just make sure that whichever form you choose, you are consistent in using it throughout and keeping all your references uniform in format.Footnotes and referencing are some of the most common problems students struggle with when preparing an essay or dissertation.You’ve written a fantastic piece of work, all your ideas are in order and you’ve referred to a great variety of relevant sources.The footnote/bibliography method requires you to apply notes throughout your paper and a bibliography at its end.Footnotes also called ‘notes’ are a reference to an individual source of information. For footnote referencing, you show reference by: For the second and other references to the same source, you do not need to include many details as in the first note. You can shorten second and other references with Latin abbreviations in these ways: Ibid= same as the last entry Use it when you have two references from the same source in a row. to indicate previously cited Use when you have already provided the full details of a source in your earlier note.The prestigious University of Oxford developed Oxford referencing style.These guidelines more comprehensive compared to those of other writing styles.Tip: If you have already used the author’s name as part of your reference, it is not necessary to repeat it in the brackets. This is by no means a complete guide to the intricacies of how to reference, but it is hopefully a helpful introduction to clear up the common confusion between the two main referencing styles.There are myriad possible tiny variants – for example in instances when a book has more than one author – so it is advisable to consult a guide or your editor or supervisor for clarification.