First Gulf War Essay

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The immediate reports from Baghdad said that American airstrikes had caused a discharge of oil from two tankers.

Coalition forces determined the main source of oil to be the Sea Island terminal in Kuwait.

Acknowledging the peril most Americans never see, Bush said, “I know that often your jobs are not comfortable or safe.” Iraq was not the only trouble spot in the Middle East during Bush’s four years in office. Baker’s personal involvement, reflected in numerous trips to the region, helped bring about the first face-to-face talks between Israel and all of its Arab neighbors in Madrid, beginning in October 1991.

The perennial tension between Israel and its Arab neighbors continued to test the expertise of the many U. Secretary Baker’s , who succeeded Baker, became the first Foreign Service officer to serve as Secretary of State.

The New York Times reported that a 1993 study sponsored by UNESCO, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the United States found the spill did "little long-term damage": About half the oil evaporated, 1,000,000 US barrels (120,000 m More recent scientific studies have tended to disagree with this assessment.

Marshlands and mud tidal flats continued to contain large quantities of oil, over nine years later, and full recovery is likely to take decades. Jacqueline Michel, US geochemist (2010 interview – transcript of radio broadcast): The long term effects were very significant.Completely recovered are the rocky shores and mangroves.Sand beaches are on the best way to complete recovery.On February 27, Kuwait City was declared liberated, and with allied forces having driven well into Iraq, President Bush and his advisers decided to halt the war.A cease-fire took effect at the following morning.The main reason for the delayed recovery of the salt marshes is the absence of physical energy (wave action) and the mostly anaerobic milieu of the oiled substrates.The latter is mostly caused by cyanobacteria which forms impermeable mats. The availability of oxygen is the most important criteria for oil degradation.Bush compiled an impressive record of nominating career officers to ambassadorships (72 percent), one of the best records for all Presidents in the post-1945 era. C., January 17, 2001 – On the morning of August 2, 1990 the mechanized infantry, armor, and tank units of the Iraqi Republican Guard invaded Kuwait and seized control of that country. On August 20 President Bush signed National Security Directive 45, "U. Policy in Response to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait," outlining U. objectives - which included the "immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait," and the "restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government to replace the puppet regime installed by Iraq." A U. ultimatum, Security Council Resolution 678, followed on November 29, 1990.During a 27-year government career, Eagleburger had been a staffer for Kissinger’s National Security Council, and held numerous senior positions at the Department of State, including Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Deputy Under Secretary for Management, and Assistant Secretary for European Affairs.Eagleburger's appointment reflected Bush’s deep respect for the Foreign Service.


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