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THE PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS A CULTURE MUST AVOID TO DEVELOP SCIENCE So now, according to Duhem and Jaki, what ideas are necessary to have (or, to be more precise generally, have) in the intellectual climate of a civilization to keep science self-sustaining, instead of dying out after a few centuries of progress?First, a linear, potentially quantifiable conception of time that clearly distinguishes past, present, and future promotes a scientific view of nature and its cause-effect relationships is necessary for a scientific outlook.
Merton’s approach is quite different from Jaki’s and Duhem’s, since Merton sees the rise of English science only as a relatively inadvertent product of Puritanism’s values and beliefs, using an approach by looking at the intellectual roots of science and by seeing theology and science as closely tied together in the medieval era since the same people often did both (such as the Frenchman Nicole Oresme).
Merton only sees Protestantism as it, for Galileo, the discoverer of the inverse squared law of the acceleration of falling bodies in physics, and his predecessors were Catholics.
Fifth, the heavens (outer space) must not be considered alive, or divine, if a scientific astronomy is to exist.
Sixth, a balance between reason and faith is necessary, without the religious people totally rejecting science or natural laws, and without the philosophers/scientists totally rejecting the claims of religious truth.
Seventh, man needs to be seen as fundamentally different from the rest of nature, as having a mind that makes him qualitatively different from the animals, etc., not just quantitatively different.
The foundations for this view are laid in the Judeo-Christian world view in Genesis where man and woman were made in God’s likeness and image, and were told they had dominion over the animals (Gen. So long as all or most of false ideas in these areas are believed by a great majority of the intellectuals/”wise men” of a given culture, a self-sustaining science will not comes to exist in a given civilization, especially any true science of bodies moving in the external real world (i.e., physics, unlike math).
This idea of time breeds a sense of complacency (“we know it all already”) and/or hopelessness, hindering the development of science in a given culture.
Second, if science is to exist, explanations of natural phenomena must avoid , pseudo-scientific “explanations” that really do not describe the causes of events, such as astrology.
Or, perhaps, do we think of Thomas Huxley debating evolution with Bishop Wilberforce in the nineteenth century?
What we need to do now is take a deep breath, and take a step out of today’s overwhelmingly secularized intellectual climate, and consider this: Modern science arose among avowedly Christian clerics, theologians, monks, and professors of medieval and renaissance Catholic universities and monasteries.