I’ve had this knife of mine for nineteen years and I’ve cut up thousands of oxen with it, and yet the blade is as good as though it had just come from the grindstone.
There are two major source issues to be considered when forming a position on the origins of Daoism.. (hereafter, DDJ) is divided into 81 “chapters” consisting of slightly over 5,000 Chinese characters, depending on which text is used. Those who are empty will be full.” While these appear paradoxical, they are probably better understood as correlational in meaning. Within the text we find longer and shorter treatises, stories, poetry, and aphorisms. Chapters 1-7 are those most often ascribed to Zhuangzi himself (which is a title meaning “Master Zhuang”) and these are known as the “inner chapters.” The remaining 26 chapters had other origins and they sometimes take different points of view from the Inner Chapters. 11-16 and parts of 18, 19, and 22 (Yellow Emperor Chapters), and Chs.
1) What evidence is there for beliefs and practices later associated with the kind of Daoism recognized by Sima Qian prior to the formation of the two classical texts? In its received form from Wang Bi (see below), the two major divisions of the text are the The text is a collection of short aphorisms that were not arranged to develop any systematic argument. The DDJ says, “straightforward words seem paradoxical,” implying, however, that they are not (ch. What is the image of the ideal person, the sage () without deliberation or volitional challenge. They live naturally and free from desires rooted in the discriminations that human society makes (ch. The may actually contain materials from a teacher known as Zhuang Zhou who lived between 370-300 B. Although there are several versions of how the remainder of the may be divided, one that is gaining currency is Chs. 17-28 (Zhuang Zhou’s Disciples’ material), with the remains of the text attributable to the final redactor. The way to this state is not the result of a withdrawal from life.
These (Daoist masters) did not compartmentalize practices by which they sought to influence the forces of reality, increase their longevity, have interaction with realities not apparent to our normal way of seeing things, and order life morally and by rulership. Because they embody ) protects the sage and the sage’s spirit becomes invincible (ch. Among the most controversial of the teachings in the DDJ are those directly associated with rulers.
Daoist ideas fermented among master teachers who had a holistic view of life.