The following visualization plots the series for England, the US and Italy, together with two recent global series.
The different series in this chart are not perfectly comparable because of differences in the definitions.
This report presents global estimates and trends for the period 2000-2012.
The following visualization, based on this source, presents the recent changes in the world-wide share of children (ages 5-17) in employment.
, there is lack of consensus regarding the appropriate ages for measuring child labor, particularly for the purpose of cross-country comparisons and global aggregates.
The age bracket ranging from 5 to 17 years of age is common in many UN reports, but there is evidently a need to differentiate work at different ages, since children in their teenage years are less vulnerable to workplace abuse.Other common age brackets are 5-11 and 5-14 years of age.The visualization below presents global trends, using estimates in two age brackets: 5-14 and 15-17 years of age.Whilst consistent survey data on child labour in the UK is limited beyond 1911, some estimates of 20th century labour have emerged.These statistics show the significant impact of the First and Second World Wars on childhood employment.Historical studies suggest that child work was widespread in Europe and North America in the 19th century, but declined very rapidly at the turn of the 20th century. The following three visualizations show the share of children in employment for Italy, the UK and the United States at the turn of the 20th century.The available historical evidence seems consistent with the fact that industrialisation in western countries initially increased the demand for child labour, but then eventually contributed towards its elimination (see Cunningham, H., & Viazzo, P. Series data on rural versus urban child labour trends for the United States can also be added in third chart below; for both boys and girls, the incidence of child labour was higher in rural populations.Following a reported spike in employment during the First World War (1914-1918), rates of childhood labour appeared to fall to approximately 6-7 per cent of children aged 12-14 in England and Wales.This would make the UK’s rate of reduction in child labour slightly faster than that of the United States.However, they do provide a rough sense of perspective.As we can see, the incidence of child labour in England in 1900 was similar to global incidence a century later.