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Approximately 16 million adolescents aged 15 to 19 become pregnant each year, constituting 11% of all births worldwide .
The study utilized two national surveys conducted in 20 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades.
There is a lack of data necessary to draw accurate portraits of pregnancy among adolescents worldwide; Sedgh, Finer, Bankole, Eilers and Singh  identify only 21 countries with complete statistics on pregnancy and birth outcomes among adolescents (including live births, spontaneous abortions, and induced abortions).
In popular media, stories about pregnant teenagers are often narrated with a melodramatic tone, adding to the anxiety of the larger Vietnamese society regarding sexual behavior among adolescents who are exposed to an unprecedented influx of Western sexual norms.
Between public alarm over teenagers’ sexual behavior and the relative lack of scientific data on adolescent pregnancy, there is little reliable knowledge about the incidence of teen pregnancy, and patterns of differential risk of and protection from early conception in contemporary Vietnam.
Young girls who become pregnant are at high risk of abridged education , and thus limited economic prospects [1,2].
These and other negative outcomes of early childbearing in the well-being of young mothers and their children have resulted in heightened international efforts to identify sources of risk and protective factors, and to reduce adolescent pregnancy [1,2]Teen pregnancy, regarded as a significant problem in many Western nations for several decades, has emerged only recently as a social problem in Vietnam because of the centuries-old tradition of arranged early marriage.
Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19.
Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.
As elsewhere, teen pregnancy in Vietnam should be understood and addressed in its particular historical and socio-cultural context.
Teenagers becoming pregnant outside of marriage embodies nuanced interactions between two significant social transformations in Vietnamese society: the emergence of teenagers as an unprecedented distinct social group [12,13,14], and a quiet “sexual revolution” occurring in Vietnam, both of which accompany modernization and globalization [15,16].