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The 11-point scale comprises two 7-item subscales, one on the stimulant effects of alcohol and another on its sedative effects.These subscales have been found to have high internal consistency during both the ascending and descending arms of the blood-alcohol curve (Martin ., 1987), monotony avoidance, impulsiveness, and socialization, were used to map out antisocial personality styles.
It is not known what exactly is inherited (Gordis, 1996).
Secondly, the risk of alcoholism is partly related to alcohol-induced facial flushing, in its strong form due to the deficiency and differences in the genotypes of aldehyde dehydrogenase among some Oriental subjects, but found also in a weaker form among some White subjects (Ward ., 1998).
Questions used to operationalize the diagnosis of alcohol dependence according to both ICD-10 criteria have been described in detail earlier (Caetano and Tam, 1995). These questions pertained to the previous 12 months.
Parental history of drinking problems was assessed by asking whether the parents of the respondents had ever had drinking problems or had been in treatment because of these.
Fifthly, cultural background also has predictive power (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1982).
In addition to the known risk factors for alcoholism, there are several other possible candidates.In men, this was also the case for high social support. In contrast to earlier studies, there was no significant association between alcohol dependence and left-handedness.Earlier research has revealed at least five risk factors for alcoholism: family history of alcohol problems, lack of facial flushing, low responsivity, antisocial behaviour, and cultural background.The test–retest reliability for classification of first-degree relatives has been found to be good, while data for second-degree relatives is considerably less reliable (Worobec ., 1990).Tendency to facial flushing was measured by one question on an 11-point scale.The controls were household members aged 18 years or more from a sample stratified to represent Finnish households in January 1996.Sampling and characteristics of the subjects have been described earlier (Poikolainen, 1997). The 66 subjects meeting the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence were excluded from the control series.The present case-control study aimed to examine which of the above correlates of heavy alcohol use, problem drinking or alcoholism remain(s) associated with alcohol dependence, defined by the ICD-10 criteria (World Health Organization, 1992) after controlling for the known risk factors in a culturally homogeneous population.The case series was collected from the Järvenpää Addiction Hospital between April 1995 and March 1997.Thus, the control series comprised 248 men and 300 women.The percentage of married subjects was 59.7 among both males and females.