A Field Guide To Critical Thinking

A Field Guide To Critical Thinking-25
Offering up far more than most readers will likely be able to digest, Levitin’s Richard E.Cytowic, Professor of Neurology at George Washington University, writes “The Fallible Mind” at Psychology Today.How do we distinguish misinformation, pseudo-facts, distortions, and outright lies from reliable information?

Offering up far more than most readers will likely be able to digest, Levitin’s Richard E.Cytowic, Professor of Neurology at George Washington University, writes “The Fallible Mind” at Psychology Today.How do we distinguish misinformation, pseudo-facts, distortions, and outright lies from reliable information?

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Learning how to figure probabilities and weigh statistical claims in one’s head may be a slog, but Levitin shows why the effort is worth it.

We are easily swayed by first-person accounts rather than evidence.

In a world of conflicting information and clashing ideologies, this guide clears a path for advancing fairminded critical societies. Linda Elder is an educational psychologist who has taught both psychology and critical thinking at the college level.

She is the President of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and the Executive Director of the Center for Critical Thinking.

He explains why a single experiment gives us little useful information, and why it is the collective meta-analysis of aggregate studies that is “the real currency of science.” It is easy to lie with statistics and graphs because few people bother to learn how they work. They are interpretations made by —and it is people who determine what to count and what to omit.

Commonly misused terms such as “average” can mislead.

The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools distills the groundbreaking work of Richard Paul and Linda Elder, targeting how to deconstruct thinking through the elements of reasoning and how to assess the quality of our thinking.

With more than half a million copies sold, Richard Paul and Linda Elder’s bestselling book in the Thinker’s Guide Library is used in secondary and higher education courses and professional development seminars across the globe.

“Probability” can be used to mean different things, assumptions are almost never stated explicitly, and beware of terms that are left undefined (What exactly does “sexually active” mean? Beware, too, of pundits, because an expert in one field is not automatically an expert in another.

The questions that polls ask are the tiniest slice of those that could have been asked, and the reported results a miniscule sample of respondents’ possible attitudes and experiences. The text gets drier as it expands into topics like bimodal distributions, spurious coincidences, and irrational biases (your chances of being killed on a single flight on a major airline are one in five million, “making it more likely that will be killed doing just about anything else”).

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